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How much do you know about Chondroitin Sulfate?

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Author : Rebecca
Update time : 2024-05-16 13:54:21
Chondroitin Sulfate is a kind of high molecular weight acidic mucopolysaccharide, mainly distributed in cartilage and bones of mammals, etc. Chondroitin Sulfate and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular activities. Chondroitin Sulfate and its derivatives have anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular activities. They are mainly used to prevent and treat osteoarthritis, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and ophthalmology diseases. Chondroitin Sulfate and its derivatives have good histocompatibility and can be used for drug modification and carrier. Chondroitin Sulfate and its derivatives have good histocompatibility and can be used for drug modification and the construction of drug carriers, which has the prospect of new drug development.

1. Anti-inflammatory
Many clinical trials have shown that Chondroitin Sulfate can improve patients' joint movement function, repair articular cartilage, reduce pain and swelling, and prevent gap stenosis. The gastrointestinal adverse effects caused by long-term use are smaller than those of NSAIDs. Chondroitin Sulfate and its derivatives can not only treat osteoarthritis and ulcerative colitis but also regulate the level of inflammatory cytokines, thus playing the role of anti-atherosclerosis, cognitive dysfunction, and diabetic osteoporosis.
2. Anti-tumor
A growing number of studies have demonstrated the precise therapeutic role of Chondroitin Sulfate in the treatment of malignant tumors such as oral cavity, lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancers. Different sources of Chondroitin Sulfate may have different effects on some cancer cells. Chondroitin Sulfate extracted from sturgeon can slow down the growth of tumor tissues in mice with colorectal cancer, reduce the expression content of nuclear antigens in proliferating cells, and increase apoptotic activity, thus inhibiting the development of colorectal cancer.
3. Improving cognitive function
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is complex. It has been found that low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate can improve cognitive impairment, increase the levels of choline acetyltransferase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase, and decrease malondialdehyde and acetylcholinesterase in mouse brain.
4. Cardiovascular protection
Acid mucopolysaccharides have anticoagulant effects; heparin is the most widely used and has anticoagulant effects in vitro and in vivo. Chondroitin Sulfate has a chemical structure similar to heparin and has a specific anticoagulant effect, but the anticoagulant activity of Chondroitin Sulfate is exerted through the fibrinogen system. Vitro Chondroitin Sulfate has an anticoagulant-specific impact, but the effect is much lower than that of heparin. It was found that fucose-based Chondroitin Sulfate and its depolymerized fragments have different anticoagulant mechanisms compared with heparin derivatives, which reduces the risk of adverse reactions and bleeding; however, further development is hindered by the lack of structurally defined oligosaccharides.
5. Improvement of diabetic osteoporosis
Chondroitin Sulfate not only improves the insulin sensitivity of skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetic mice induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet but also has a better therapeutic effect on diabetic osteoporosis caused by diabetes mellitus. It was found that Chondroitin Sulfate could lower blood glucose, increase bone mineral density, improve bone microstructure, and reduce the number of bone marrow adipocytes through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and bone metabolism regulation. Therefore, Chondroitin Sulfate can effectively prevent diabetes-induced bone loss and can be used to develop anti-DOP functional foods and dietary interventions for diabetes.
6. Anti-malaria
Malaria is one of the most severe epidemics in Africa. Artemisinin is a fast and efficient antimalarial drug, but eliminating malaria is still an excellent challenge for humanity. Taking advantage of the drug-carrying property of CS, LUO et al. synthesized octadecyl amine-modified Chondroitin Sulfate, which was used to prepare a long-lasting reticulated gel-release system as an effective weapon in the protracted war against malaria. This system can improve the effectiveness of mass drug administration for the elimination of malaria and has the potential to revolutionize the treatment of malaria and other diseases.
In addition, Chondroitin Sulfate has applications in treating AIDS, dry eye, chronic cystitis, anti-allergy and anti-virus, and neuron protection and repair.
7. Conclusion
Chondroitin Sulfate and its derivatives are essential biochemical drugs with good potential in anti-inflammatory, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular protection. Future research should also consider the route of administration; otherwise, it will take more work to achieve the expected therapeutic effects. Future research should strengthen the production process, analytical techniques, and activity studies to develop new resources of Chondroitin Sulfate and its derivatives and expand their applications in food and health products.
 
 
 
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