Press Release

Vitamin D VS Vitamin E

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Author : Charis Shen
Update time : 2024-05-16 09:14:48
►What is vitamin D?
Vitamin D, a fat-soluble vitamin, is pivotal for calcium, magnesium, phosphate absorption, and other biological functions. It plays a crucial role in calcium homeostasis and metabolism, aiding in the prevention of rickets and osteomalacia, and in tandem with calcium, staving off osteoporosis, particularly prevalent in aging populations. Additionally, vitamin D influences neuromuscular function, inflammation, gene expression, and cellular processes like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.

►What is vitamin E?
Vitamin E, renowned as a potent antioxidant, is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents like fat and ethanol. As a fat-soluble antioxidant, it shields cell membranes from reactive oxygen species.

►Source:
Vitamin D:
  1. Sunlight: Exposure to ultraviolet light prompts the skin to synthesize vitamin D. Ultraviolet B (UVB) rays stimulate the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin to pre-vitamin D3, subsequently transformed into the active form of vitamin D within the body.
  2. Food: Various foods contain vitamin D, including fish (salmon, tuna, cod), cod liver oil, egg yolks, milk, yogurt, and orange juice. Moreover, certain fortified foods like cereals, dairy, soy products, and orange juice may also be fortified with vitamin D.
  3. Supplements: Oral vitamin D supplements are recommended if sun exposure or dietary intake exceeds the body's vitamin D requirements. Consulting with a healthcare professional ensures proper supplementation.
 
Vitamin E:
  1. Vegetable oil: Vegetable oils, notably wheat germ oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, and olive oil, serve as significant sources of vitamin E.
  2. Nuts and seeds: Almonds, cashews, peanuts, walnuts, pine nuts, pumpkin seeds, and flax seeds are rich sources of vitamin E.
  3. Green leafy vegetables: Certain green leafy vegetables like spinach, cabbage, kale, mustard greens, and rape also contain vitamin E.
  4. Whole grain foods: Whole grain foods like whole wheat bread, brown rice, and oats also contribute to vitamin E intake.
  5. Animal sources: In smaller amounts, vitamin E can also be found in animal foods such as egg yolks, beef, chicken, and fish.

Forms:
Vitamin D:
  1. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol): Derived mainly from plants, particularly ergot fungi, vitamin D2 is commonly used as a dietary supplement, often added to cereals, orange juice, etc.
  2. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol): Primarily sourced from animal foods like fish, cod liver oil, and egg yolks, vitamin D3 can also be synthesized by human skin upon exposure to ultraviolet light. Widely utilized as a supplement, usually taken orally, vitamin D3 is deemed more effective due to its closer resemblance to the form naturally produced by the body. Both forms can be converted into active forms in the body to carry out the physiological functions of vitamin D.
 
Vitamin E:
  1. α-Tocopherol: The predominant and most active form of vitamin E in the human body, α-tocopherol exerts potent antioxidant effects, safeguarding cell membranes from oxidative harm.
  2. β-tocopherol: While less potent than α-tocopherol in terms of antioxidant activity, β-tocopherol is still present in some foods.
  3. γ-tocopherol: Abundant in nuts and seeds, γ-tocopherol boasts antioxidant properties and may confer cardiovascular benefits.
  4. δ-tocopherol: Though less common, δ-tocopherol is recognized as an essential antioxidant within the vitamin E family.
In summary, the vitamin E family encompasses various forms, such as α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol, with α-tocopherol being the most prevalent and active form. When considering daily vitamin E intake, α-tocopherol is typically the primary focus.
 
►Effects of insufficient intake:
Vitamin D:
  1. Bone Health: Vitamin D facilitates calcium absorption, which is crucial for maintaining bone integrity. Deficiency may lead to bone diseases like rickets and osteoporosis, increasing fracture susceptibility.
  2. Muscle Function: Inadequate vitamin D can impair muscle function, resulting in fatigue, weakness, and reduced exercise capacity.
  3. Immune System: Vitamin D plays a vital role in immune function. Deficiency may compromise immune response and elevate infection risk.
  4. Cardiovascular Health: Research suggests vitamin D deficiency may correlate with cardiovascular issues such as hypertension and arteriosclerosis.
  5. Mood and Cognitive Function: Insufficient vitamin D levels have been associated with mood disorders like depression and cognitive decline.
 
Vitamin E:
  1. Oxidative Stress: Vitamin E, a potent antioxidant, shields against free radical damage. Insufficiency heightens oxidative stress, escalating the risk of cellular and tissue injury.
  2. Immune Function: Vitamin E is integral to maintaining immune system integrity. Inadequate intake may impair immune function, elevating susceptibility to infections.
  3. Cardiovascular Health: Vitamin E preserves blood vessel health and elasticity by safeguarding endothelial cells. Low intake heightens the risk of cardiovascular diseases like atherosclerosis and heart disease.
  4. Nervous System: Vitamin E contributes to normal nervous system function. Inadequate intake may contribute to the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
  5. Fertility: Vitamin E is crucial for reproductive health, particularly in women of childbearing age. Insufficient intake may compromise germ cell health and fertility.

►Existence forms in medicines:
Vitamin D:
  1. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol): This variant of vitamin D is frequently present in prescribed medications and supplements and is available in oral tablets, capsules, or liquid formulations.
  2. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol): Similarly utilized in prescribed drugs and supplements, vitamin D3, akin to D2, can be taken orally as tablets, capsules, or liquid formulations.
  3. Vitamin D injections: Under specific circumstances, physicians may advise vitamin D injections, particularly in severe deficiency cases or individuals with malabsorption issues.
 These different vitamin D medicines can be chosen based on individual needs and doctor's advice. Whether it's vitamin D2 or vitamin D3, they both provide the vitamin D your body needs and help maintain bone health, immune system function, and other physiological processes.
 
Vitamin E:
  1. α-tocopherol: Predominant and active, α-tocopherol is commonly found in oral vitamin E supplements, usually in capsule or soft gel forms.
  2. Vitamin E Mixtures: Certain vitamin E medications comprise a blend of forms like alpha-tocopherol, beta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocopherol, aiming to provide comprehensive vitamin E nutrition.
  3. Vitamin E Topicals: Frequently incorporated into topical formulations such as skin creams, lotions, and oils, vitamin E aids skin hydration, shields against free radicals, and alleviates skin ailments like dryness and itching.
  4. Vitamin E injections: In select cases, physicians may suggest vitamin E injections, especially for specific health conditions or individuals with malabsorption syndromes.
These different vitamin E medicines can be chosen based on individual needs and doctor's advice. Vitamin E supplements often provide antioxidant protection and promote overall health, while topicals are used for skin care and treatment.
 
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